Publication Integrity & Ethics (PIE) was developed over a decade ago to address several areas of concern and promote real editorial freedom.Read more.
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Usually, the editor of a journal is the individual responsible for deciding which articles, texts or images will be published and which should be rejected. The decisions will, however, be influenced by the editorial board, the policies of the journal and legal requirements such as copyright infringement or plagiarism.
There are different circumstances where articles submitted to the editor must be removed or retracted such as:
Article withdrawal: this is most commonly used in the press when early versions of the written texts and articles are withdrawn due to errors. Sometimes, article withdrawal occurs when articles are submitted twice or to multiple journals, when the texts may represent infringements of the ethical codes, plagiarism and other fraudulent use of data.
Article retractions: these are used as post-publishing methods of dealing with infringements of editorial ethical codes, plagiarism, fraudulent use of data and other issues related to the publishing sector. In most of the cases, a retraction will be used in order to correct such errors as the ones stated above.
Article removal: sometimes, editors are required to completely remove articles or texts from the online database of the journal. This will occur in exceptional cases when errors cannot be corrected, the article infringes legal rights of other individuals, is defamatory or there is a court order that imposes such a decision.